Smoking has been known to cause dark gums, and this can easily be seen by comparing the gums of smokers and non-smokers.

Cocaine consumption, especially when applied on oral mucous membranes, can also cause darkening.

According to the website of the Bayside dentists of Dental Expressions by Dr.

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Aside from the darkening, the condition may also lead to bleeding, pain, and bad breath.

Oral conditions such as this are often the result of poor oral hygiene and bad habits, so it is best to avoid those things to ensure your overall health, not just your dental health.

From the figures given above, surgical errors account for, at least, 4,000 cases each year.

Specific cases of surgical error include: wrong-person surgery; incorrect surgical procedure; wrong-site surgery; improper suturing; accidental puncture or laceration; removal of wrong organ; foreign bodies left inside a patient’s body; wrong dosage of anesthesia; post-operative hemorrhage or hematoma; physiologic and metabolic derangement; wound dehiscence, a surgical complication wherein a wound ruptures along a surgical suture; pulmonary embolism; and, wrongful death due to complications from negligent surgery.

The natural color of gums is coral pink, but there are instances where they become dark for a variety of reasons.

Having normal-looking gums is not just about cosmetics, because it can also be about health, as dark gums may be a result or symptom of certain medical conditions.

This also happens in bottled wine, but at a much slower pace.

For the case of simplicity, an analogy of a public Java class declaring public operations is adopted and mapped to corresponding QVT Library AST model, which in turn owns corresponding imperative operations.

For certain types of health problems, the last form of treatment that a doctor would usually recommend is surgery.