Data entry for returned surveys was achieved with optical mark recognition using Remark OMR.

developing and validating trust measures-15

Developing and validating trust measures Video chat serbiea adult

The primary objective of this study was to use results from our prior formative study to develop a patient-reported measure of collaborative goal setting that could be used for monitoring and evaluating the occurrence of collaborative goal setting among patients with diabetes.

We report findings from analyses testing the internal and external validity of the Patient Measure of Collaborative Goal Setting (PM-CGS) measure.

The questionnaire included the PM-CGS items, as well as the following previously validated measures: the Perceived Competence Scale,17 the Trust in Physician Scale,18 and the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities (SDSCA) measure.19 The survey also included items specific to the patient's socio-demographic characteristics including age, race, gender, marital status, employment status, income, and level of education achieved.

The collaborative goal setting and self-management measures were treated as latent variables, each comprising five domains.

Confirmatory factor analysis with full information maximum likelihood estimation20 was used to test the internal validity (ie, measurement model) of the instrument.

Prior to conducting the confirmatory factor analysis, survey data were evaluated for missing data. Consistent with our conceptual model of collaborative goal setting, we tested a second-order factor model.Participants were asked to provide their thoughts as they completed the questionnaire and responses were probed for further insight.13 Cognitive interviews took on average 30 mins to complete (range: 25–40).Based on feedback from the cognitive interviews, the initial pool of items was further reduced resulting in a total of 44 items for further consideration in the PM-CGS.Thus, while Heisler's conceptualization of collaborative goal setting was considered, items developed were based primarily on findings from a previously conducted qualitative study in which we used focus groups to explore patient perceptions of collaborative goal setting in diabetes care.11 That study resulted in a conceptualization of collaborative goal setting as including five domains: (1) listen and learn from each other (ie, patients and physicians listen and learn from each other), (2) share ideas (ie, the physician shares his or her ideas and gives the patient the opportunity to share), (3) the context of a caring relationship (ie, physicians have a good bedside manner, are compassionate and sensitive to patient needs), (4) agree on a measurable objective (ie, patients agree on a measureable objective with their physician), and (5) support for goal achievement (ie, the provision of support by the physician in a number of forms: emotional, tangible, or instrumental).11 For each of these domains we developed 6–11 survey items with a 5-point Likert-type response format ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). In the second phase, the initial pool of 77 items was revised and refined by incorporating input from an expert panel and by conducting cognitive interviews.The expert panel included a psychometrician, a primary care physician, a health communication specialist, and a health psychologist.Objective Despite known benefits of patient-perceived collaborative goal setting, we have a limited ability to monitor this process in practice.