In the New World the term refers to a period when permanent settlements were becoming more common and human groups were making the transition from hunting-and-gathering to agriculture. Bronze Age - A prehistoric period in the Old World, dating roughly from 3000-1000 B. E, defined by the widespread use of bronze as a material for tools, weapons, and ornaments. The lids were usually modeled to represent animal-headed gods or the heads of important people.In evolutionary biology, an "archaic" Homo sapien is a hominin (or hominid) who was slightly more primitive than modern humans (Homo sapiens). Bulb of percussion - A small, rounded protrusion on a flake resulting from the blow that separated the flake from its core or another flake. Carbon dating - see Radiocarbon Dating Cardinal Directions - Collective term for the four primary directions: North, South, East, West.

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Many ancient peoples, such as the Egyptians living along the Nile, depended on annual floods and alluvial deposits to replenish the soils they were farming.

Alluvial soils are usually nutrient-rich and good for agriculture.

Aristocracy - A governing body of upper class citizens or the system of government in which aristocrats (upper class citizens) have controlling power. Bulbar depression - A depression left on the core (where a flake's bulb of percussion was attached) when a blade or flake was struck off. Ceramics - Objects, often pottery, made of fired or baked clay.

In an aristocracy people are generally born into distinct social classes and there is little or no upward mobility. Chert - A fine-grained sedimentary rock, similar to flint, that is white, pinkish, brown, gray, or blue-gray in color.

This is a good way to search for patterns or changes in soil color or plant density (possible indicators of buried features) that may not be visible to a person walking on the ground.

Agora - An open-air place of congregation in an ancient Greek city, generally the public square or marketplace, that served as a political, civic, religious, and commercial center.

Archaeoastronomy - The study of ancient astronomical knowledge and its role in past cultures. - Before Present; used in age determination instead of B. Balks are often left to aid with stratigraphic analysis.

Archaeology - The scientific excavation and study of ancient human material remains. Benchmark - For excavation purposes, a permanent point at a known elevation that can be used to measure other elevations during excavation . Biface tools - Stone tools that have been worked on both sides or faces, meaning that flakes have been intentionally (not naturally) chipped off from both sides of the stone.

Physical anthropologists study human skeletons and other bodily remains.

Biological anthropologists deal primarily with the evolution of humans and primates. "Present" is academically defined as the year 1950 (the year when this term was invented).

Artifact - A portable object manufactured, modified, or used by humans. Years are counted back from the traditionally recognized year of Christ's birth. In antiquity, chert was one of the universally preferred materials for making stone tools (obsidian was another).