But it does not make an exception for health or safety purposes. But many anti-fascists believe police will target them for arrest regardless of whether they’ve done anything illegal, Bray says.

most intimidating masks-17

Almost all were aimed at preventing Ku Klux Klansmen from concealing their identities while terrorizing, intimidating, or otherwise harassing various minority communities.

Most of the laws explicitly reference “hoods” in addition to masks, and some get even more specific: Ohio’s 1953 law bans “white caps, masks, or other disguise.” (Two Klan members lobbied against the Ohio ban, claiming it was discriminatory.) cover gatherings of more than two or three people.

(Our colleague Shane Bauer got it right in the face.) Yet paper masks really won’t do much to stop these chemicals—especially with a direct hit.

That’s according to John Georgiadis, a professor of biomedical engineering at the Illinois Institute of Technology.

In most cases, though, wearing a mask is only deemed illegal if the person is committing another crime or impinging on someone else’s constitutional rights.

(DC’s 1981 law, for example, applies only in instances of intentional intimidation.) Alabama (1949), Florida, and North Carolina ban the wearing of masks in any public place, period.(That law became a subject of controversy last year, after a donned balaclavas, motorcycle helmets, and all-black gear for protests against nuclear power and actions to defend squatters from eviction.The tactic gained prominence after the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, when the Autonomen expanded their activities to counter a surge of Nazi violence in post-Communist Germany.“In my field of work, ‘accidents’ can happen,” he says.“Someone can flip a switch and electrocute me, or drop a heavy object above me or impale me with a forklift…If I were to be recognized in a picture or video assisting a counterprotester or defending someone under attack or standing against fascism, it would increase my personal risk.” over the course of the day.These masks work by forcing air through an intricately folded membrane coated in sticky carbon fibers, a technique first developed by the British during World War I.