Earlier gold discoveries were kept quiet so chaos didn't break out.

But the 1848 California gold rush enticed miners to leave Australia, so the 1850 discovery was not kept quiet.

Privacy is considered the norm and attempts at personal ingratiation may meet with rebuff.

A referendum to change Australia's status, from a commonwealth headed by the British monarch to a republic, was defeated in 1999. However, "G'day" the informal "hello" is overused by tourists.

The Australians expect one's work to speak for itself, so they are not impressed with your position, title, or status.

This orientation reinforces a cooperative interaction across power levels and creates a more stable cultural environment.

The predominant religion in Australia is Christian (50%) and their high Individualism (IDV) index correlates well with other Christian based cultures.

In these predominant Christian societies, the Hofstede Individualism Index has been found to be the most closely correlating Dimension.

More on Geert Hofstede We have defined a predominantly Christian country as over 50% of the population practicing some form of Christianity, other than Catholicism.

We asked Senning and Barbara Pachter, author of "The Essentials of Business Etiquette," to tell us about some antiquated gendered courtesies and other etiquette rules that you don't need to follow anymore — and what you should do instead. On the other hand, Pachter said, "if you don't know the person's name, then you use a non-gender, non-specific term." She suggested: "Dear client" or "Dear [company X] representative." The salutation is important, she added, because "if somebody sends you an email [saying], 'Dear Sir,' what are they telling you? Therefore, why should you care what they have to say? Pachter said, "The new guideline is the host pays the bill, regardless of gender." Senning said this new guideline isn't so different from the old one — because the man almost always used to be the one who invited a woman on a date.

Now, he said, "we have an allowance for the understanding that anyone could invite anyone.

But observing proper etiquette still makes some people nervous — and there are a few guidelines that are trickier than others.