Out of the insurgency came a highly destructive group calling itself ISIL, which took large parts of the north and west.

radiometric dating 7th grade-58

The major city states of the early Sumerian period were; Eridu, Bad-tibira, Larsa, Sippar, Shuruppak, Uruk, Kish, Ur, Nippur, Lagash, Girsu, Umma, Hamazi, Adab, Mari, Isin, Kutha, Der and Akshak.

The cities to the north like Ashur, Arbela (modern Irbil) and Arrapkha (modern Kirkuk) were also extant in what was to be called Assyria from the 25th century BC; however, at this early stage, they were Sumerian ruled administrative centres.

) is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest, and Syria to the west. The main ethnic groups are Arabs and Kurds; others include Assyrians, Turkmen, Shabakis, Yazidis, Armenians, Mandeans, Circassians, and Kawliya.

Around 95% of the country's 37 million citizens are Muslims, with Christianity, Yarsan, Yezidism, and Mandeanism also present.

Disputes over the sovereignty of Iraqi Kurdistan continue.

A referendum about the full sovereignty of Iraqi Kurdistan was held on 25 September 2017.

The area has been home to successive civilisations since the 6th millennium BC.

Iraq was the centre of the Akkadian, Sumerian, Assyrian, and Babylonian empires.

Iraq was placed under the authority of the United Kingdom as the British Mandate of Mesopotamia.

A monarchy was established in 1921 and the Kingdom of Iraq gained independence from Britain in 1932.

Two major rivers, the Tigris and Euphrates, run south through Iraq and into the Shatt al-Arab near the Persian Gulf.