Leaf-shaped tools from this period, together with chopping and planoconvex scraping implements, have been found exposed on the high riverine terraces of the Rio Pedregal in western Venezuela.

Late Pleistocene hunting artifacts, including spear tips, have been found at a similar series of sites in northwestern Venezuela known as "El Jobo"; according to radiocarbon dating, these date from 13,000 to 7,000 BC.

In addition to indigenous peoples known today, the population included historical groups such as the Kalina (Caribs), Auaké, Caquetio, Mariche, and Timoto-Cuicas.

), is a federal republic located on the northern coast of South America.

It is bordered by Colombia on the west, Brazil on the south, Guyana on the east, the Dutch Caribbean ABC islands to the north and the islands of Trinidad and Tobago to the north-east.

However, Martín Fernández de Enciso, a member of the Vespucci and Ojeda crew, gave a different account.

In his work Summa de geografía, he states that the crew found indigenous people who called themselves the Veneciuela.

The 1980s oil glut led to an external debt crisis and a long-running economic crisis.

Inflation peaked at 100% in 1996 and poverty rates rose to 66% in 1995 – are widely blamed for destabilizing the nation's economy.

Oil was discovered in the early 20th century and, today, Venezuela has the world's largest known oil reserves and has been one of the world's leading exporters of oil.

Previously an underdeveloped exporter of agricultural commodities such as coffee and cocoa, oil quickly came to dominate exports and government revenues.

His certainty of having attained Paradise made him name this region 'Land of Grace', a phrase that has become the country's nickname.